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          * Jupiter - Gaseous or Solid? Ask Juno - May 2017              Summary:   Deuterium enhancements of 1010 observed in Large Dark Nebulae (LDN) and heavy elements detected by Galileo (C, O, S, Ar, Kr and Xe) suggest the giant planets in the solar system accreted slow and cold (20o K) from snowflakes and dust at their current orbits, forming frozen, highly deuterated Methane Gas Hydrate bodies (MGH), together comprising > 300 earth masses of water. These alone comprised the original solar system. Jupiter incorporates the heavy elements as dust grains, which are uniformly distributed throughout the solid planet resulting in Jupiterfs high density, 1.33, as compared with pure MGH, 0.9 g/cm3. A recent (6,000 years BP) high energy impact on Jupiter triggered a massive nuclear fusion explosion of the local deuterium, which ejected proto-Venus plus the Galilean moons. The impact also expanded the incandescent atmosphere of Jupiter tenfold, initiating a continuous fusion reaction in the impact crater. A hot plasma plume from this reaction, named Juno in Roman myth, originally extended 2 x106 km from the impact site at 22 oS Latitude, beyond Callisto, rotating rapidly with Jupiter. It slowly diminished over ~ 5000 years, sweeping over the Galilean moons every eight hours, resulting in the higher densities and temperatures of the inner Galilean moons. The longevity of the plume confirms the high deuterium content of our giant planets observed in a number of Large Dark Nebula such as 1689N (Roueff). The fusion on the surface, some 700 km below the cloud-tops, has diminished to the lowest temperature reaction known: d + p ¨ 3He+ + ƒÁ , which alone is producing Jupiterfs atmospheric temperature excess, enormous magnetic field, constant auroral ovals, and its multiple zonal wind bands, actually vortices, constrained below by the solid MGH surface. The reaction is generating 1030 relativistic 3He+ ions per second, which rise in a hot vortex, due to the Coriolis effect. It is swept west below the clouds some 20,000-km due to the rapid rotation of Jupiter, exiting the atmosphere through the Great Red Spot along with the standard abundances of heavy elements which are continuously being released by the heat of the fusion reaction. This results in a hot equatorial wind superrotation sensed by the MWR, but interpreted as a pancake layer of ammonia in the interior of a egas giantf. A etornadof of helium ions exits through the Great Red Spot, impacts the 3He+ ion plasma cloud that orbits Jupiter (prograde), imparting the angular momentum of the rapidly rotating Jupiter and adding ions to replace those being lost to space. The positively charged cloud external to Jupiterfs generates powerful magnetosphere unencumbered by the solid planet. Jupiterfs magnetic field is opposite the field of the Earth, with north magnetic field corresponding to north geographic pole due to the prograde circulation of positive ions in the cloud. The highly energetic helium ions (24,000 km/s) which pass through the plasma cloud at the OfDonaghue ehot spotf are captured in the external magnetic field and deflected helically to the poles creating the constant auroral ovals. The ovals are constant because the fusion reaction is constant. The 3He+ ions are stable and produce no recombination radiation but their spiraling is observed as partially polarized decimetric synchrotron radiation observed from Earth, currently believed to be due to electrons. 3He+ ions have a theoretical hyperfine transition between ground states at 3.46 cm which cannot be detected by any instrument on Juno. However, due to their great numbers surrounding Jupiter, they could easily be detected by radio telescopes on Earth supporting the mission. The solid MGH body of Jupiter cannot generate a magnetic field, but due to the known uniformly distributed abundance of iron in dust particles, 318 times that of the iron on Earth, it acts as a large weak permanent magnet induced by the external magnetic field, offset from the geometric axis. This has resulted in the unexpected features of the magnetic field near Jupiterfs surface. The JEDI energetic particle detector has failed to identify the relativistic 3He+ ions with velocities as high as 24,000 km/sec surrounding Jupiter because it is too small to measure their time-of-flight. On every pass, all channels of the MWR radiometer experiment are detecting heat from the same atmospheric vortex circulating on the solid MGH surface of the planet (Figure 8), but due to the current insistence on the egas giantf hypothesis the data is being interpreted as a layer of ammonia at the equator within the gas planet. The radiometers are passive receivers, not radar or spectrometers. The Juno Radio Science (gravity) experiment is already indicating a large "stable" homogeneous mass distribution of Jupiter rather than the rocky-iron core imagined having formed rapidly and attracted all the hydrogen before it escaped the system. The complexities in the medium wavelength gravity results, currently thought to be due to deep flows, are indicative of the very large basin or flooded palimpsest produced by impact explosions, the latest of which surrounds the fusion reaction, also an east-west ice mountain range below the hot vortex at 22 º S Latitude to the east of the GRS, formed due to the raining out of water released by the heat of the fusion as it rises, expands and cools. A crucial event for Juno will occur on July 11, 2017, when Juno will pass over the GRS, being exposed to the 'tornado' of 1030/sec relativistic 3He+ ions. Unaware of the danger, the Juno team may try to look down into the spot with the radiometer, because in the 'gas giant' hypothesis it is thought to be a passive feature, but this would be disastrous. The radiation will penetrate the titanium instrumentation vault and cause the system to go into safe mode or worse.


           * On the Local Origin of the CMB Radiation - 2016              Summary:   Until recently, cosmologists have had little concern with the solar system, being focused primarily on the power spectrum of small angle temperature anisotropies in what is believed to be the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). However, studies of the WMAP sky data have revealed a number of large scale alignments with the ecliptic plane, thereby to the solar system. These alignments have been confirmed in the more recent, precise Planck reports (XV, XVIII) as a deficit in the low-l power spectrum, but no physical basis for such an alignment has been suggested based on the current ‘standard model’ of the solar system. A number of ancient texts indicate that proto-Venus (Aditi, Pallas Athene) was born from the head of Jupiter. That is, rebounded from an enormous fusion-enhanced impact on the highly deuterated, solid, Methane Gas Hydrate (MGH) surface of Jupiter 6,000 years BP. The author maintains that the blast was directed into the inner solar system resulting in a dipole distribution of the heat expanding outward at the speed of light since that date. As a result, current observations are detecting black body re-radiated from 3,000 light-year distant galactic dust with the same dipole nature as the blast. Cosmologists subtract the dipole, assuming it represents the velocity of the solar system relative to the CMB. The multiple alignments of the resulting large scale anisotropies are a direct result of this subtraction, reflecting only natural deviations of the original blast from perfect symmetry. This proposed interpretation of the microwave background inherently solves the 'horizon' problem, with no requirement for 'inflation'. The recent realization that the power in the WMAP anisotropies is systematically greater than in the more recent Planck data suggests a means of corroborating the Jupiter impact hypothesis. If the small anisotropies are from the Big Bang, there should be no measurable change in their power or shape with time. If the microwave background power continues to decrease, the foreground local origin of source will be established. The NASA Juno probe, due to begin a detailed study of Jupiter's interior in mid-2016, has the potential to detect predicted features hidden below the clouds, since the Great Red Spot, the temperature excess, and the multiple zonal vortices are all driven by an active fusion furnace at the center of the impact crater which caused the explosion 6,000 years BP.


           * Jupiter Gaseous or Solid? - Ask Juno (2015)              Summary:   When the data from the Galileo probe was returned to Earth, it contained dozens of unexpected findings. These initial findings were supposedly "encouraging scientists to rethink their theories of Jupiter's formation and the nature of the planetary evolution process". But in the ensuing fifteen years, not a single one of these unexpected findings has been explained. In fact, every textbook in the world still states that Jupiter (Saturn, Uranus & Neptune) are 90% hydrogen and 10% helium primarily due to their temperature excesses. Believe it or not, the latest mission to Jupiter, Juno (arriving in mid-2016), is designed primarily to detect the three cloud layers integral to the 'gas giant' hypothesis - even though they were not found by the Galileo probe. As explained in the linked paper, Juno will not find the three cloud layers, but has a good chance of finding specific features which prove that Jupiter et al. are hugh, solid, frozen methane gas hydrate bodies, the temperature excesses of which are limited to their atmospheres. Needless to say, the 'scientific community' is going to find this a difficult pill to swallow and will fight to suppress it, but the alternative is for another generation of young minds to be wasted on old unfounded hypotheses.


           * An Alternate View of Venus - July 2002              Summary:   Venus is a hot new planet due to its recent catastrophic birth from an impact on Jupiter. Evidence presented is based on NASA Pioneer Venus and Soviet Venera data. Its great internal heat is being transferred through the crust by the high speed venting of S8, a staggered ring molecule, via over 200,000 'small domes.' Although S8 dominates the lower atmosphere it was not detected because its mass was beyond the range of the PV mass spectrometer. S8 crystallizes at exactly the temperature of the lower cloud layer. It is the great mass of these heavy molecules and crystals that load the lower atmosphere and cause the high atmospheric pressure (~91 atm.) at the surface, not CO2. Radiation from raw lava exposed in surface cracks was registered by the sensitive radiometer as the main probe passed through the lower cloud layer, but was arbitrarly thrown out by the project scientists "because signals in all channels increased unreasonably." Much of the other data was dismissed or misinterpreted in order to be consistent with the assumed uniformitarian paradigm.


        * Jupiter - Gaseous or Solid - Oct. 2008         Summary: Jupiter and Saturn are solid methane gas hydrate bodies, not gas giants. Evidence confirming this view comes from the visible features of these bodies, the Galileo atmospheric probe and the Shoemaker-Levy 9 comet impacts. The visible features are all caused by recent high energy impacts on these giant planets. Jupiter's Great Red Spot marks the top of a column hot gases rising from the crater formed by an impact which occurred 6,000 years ago. Proof lies in the fact that it has remained at the same latitude for the 350 years it has been observed. These rising gases spawn and color the zonal wind bands that encircle the entire planet, which themselves imply a solid bounding surface. The gases heat and bloat the atmosphere, producing an apparent temperature excess, while the body of the planet, some several thousand km below the cloud tops remains frozen. The larger Shoemaker-Levy 9 comet fragments penetrated the atmosphere and struck the solid surface, producing shock waves and rising mushroom clouds which resulted in enormous, earth-sized plumes at the cloud tops.  Thes 'main events' saturated infrared detectors and exhibited the spectra of many elements frozen in the surface, in quantities impossible to explain by any other hypothesis.                                                                       

        * The Origin of Sunspots - Dec 2003          Summary:   The enormous impact on Jupiter, which occurred 6000 years ago, ejected a myriad of satellites, including the proto-Galilian moons. But it also initiated an enormous nuclear fusion conflagration of the deuterium and hydrogen from the gas hydrates in the impact crater. This was initially manifested as a great flaming jet which extended more than a million kilometers from Jupiter out into space, sweeping around as the planet rotated. The gases from it coalsced in space as they cooled into unique, cinder-like hydrated bodies of low density while still within the magnetic field of Jupiter. The fate of these bodies depended on the orientation of Jupiter's rotation at any time, so some of this material contributed to the outer layers of the Galilean moons, some of these bodies became main belt asteroids, and many went into inclined, highly eccentric sun grazing, planetary orbits. The numbers of these bodies ranges into the millions, due to the great longevity of the jet which was still ejecting mass from Jupiter into space as late as 1932. As the orbits of the sungrazers decay the larger ones impact the Sun, pushing down the gaseous surface at the point of entry, causing local cooling as they are vaporized, and the material ejected by their impact comprises the Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). The impacts set up a circularization pattern in the surface layer of the Sun much like a smoke ring or storm cell, accounting for their (week or two) longevity. The loss of kinetic energy of these fast moving bodies are also responsible for the non-thermal deposition of energy in the chromosphere which attains temperatures of millions of degrees.                                                                         


       * The Cosmogony of the Solar System - May, 2004        Summary:  The original solar system comprised only the giant planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Dust and gases were swept from the inner solar system in less than a million years. At the snow limit, the dust acted as nuclei for the capture of much of the gas, primarily in the form of water ice. The giant planets accreted from ice crystals in 400 million years as solid, cold, methane gas hydrate bodies. Most gas not captured as ice was lost. Their spots, rings, zonal jets, and temperature excesses, are the result of `recent' high energy impacts. Proto-terrestrial planet material rebounded from similar impacts as a vast hot plasma cloud. Repeated heating (>10^4 K) by tidal and electromagnetic braking at perihelion rapidly reduced their orbits, increased densities by out-gassing of lighter elements, and concentrated iron in their cores. The light elements originally out-gassed, were later recaptured to form oceans and atmospheres.


         * Egyptian Myth and Catastrophism - September 2008      Summary:  This article discusses Egyptian myth in more fascinating detail than any of my other writings.  It was surprising to me that Egyptologists are as dogmatic about their interpretations of myth as planetary scientists, which could be considered a ‘softer’ science, but this is obviously true.  They refuse to even imagine that their long-accep could possibly be incorrect.  They fail to understand the exquisite detail concerning the separation and return of the solid core of priori-Mars at the end of each encounter.  Interestingly, the translation of the Book of the Dead which I have used concerning these separations is that of Zecharia Sitchin, of Nibiru fame, who obviously does not understand the physical events it is describing.  It is only in the context of the Ackerman catastrophism scenario that the translation makes any sense.





  © John Ackerman