April 2003

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In This Issue:

Mars’ Liquid Core

There seems to be no end to new evidence in favor of our V/A scenario of recent cosmic catastrophism. We welcome this because every such finding supplies data for new articles in our newsletters, covering material which was not available when Firmament and Chaos were published. The latest evidence comes from a research article by C. F.Yoder et al, from JPL which appeared in Sciencexpress on Mar 6, 2003. After considerable analysis of Doppler shifts in the signals from the Mars Global Surveyor, in which all other factors had been accounted for, the authors have concluded that tidal forces indicate Mars’ core is liquid.

The reason this is significant is that Mars, with one tenth the mass of the Earth, should have cooled much more rapidly than our planet, and consequently its iron core should have ‘frozen’ to a much greater degree than that of Earth. But the data implies the absence of a solid core. This finding presents problems for the predominant 'uniformitarian' paradigm. The absence of a solid core is thought to be related to the fact that Mars no longer has a magnetic field. Evidence of magnetism in its surface rocks implies it had a magnetic field in the past.

The V/A Explanation

In the V/A scenario, priori-Mars (still had solid core and was covered with vegetation) repeatedly orbited the Earth and escaped one hundred times in a period of about 3,000 years, after first having been ejected from its ancient interior orbit by proto-Venus. Its orbit around the Earth was geosynchronous and it remained stationary over the Transhimalayas, during which time the spin axis of our lithosphere (not the solid core) shifted to Hudson Bay. This massive stationary stage in the sky was the source of all ancient myth, appearing four hundred times larger than the full Moon. During the 15 year encounters priori-Mars became more and more deconstructed due to continuous marsquakes, the melting of subsurface rock and its manifestation as flaming lava fountains, the largest of which was the primary deity in all ancient cultures (Prajapati, Brahma, Osiris, Zeus.) Convulsions of priori-Mars’ interior occurred each time it passed through alignment with the Moon, or worse yet, the Sun and Moon combined , (Accounting for the ancient’s great fear of, and interest in predicting eclipses). Assisted by the tidal force of the massive nearby Earth, tens of thousands of convulsions of its interior ejected massive rock bodies, as large as 20 km into space, carrying along with them massive ‘storms’ of surface rocks, atmospheric gases and water. This is why the northern plains of Mars are a full 6 km lower than the southern highlands. The gases and water fell to Earth, re-invigorating our planet to a degree not recognized in modern times. By the end of each encounter, priori-Mars was so devastated that liquid iron from its outer core was drawn out into space. (This is the source of the many pure nickel iron meteorites.) The final stage of each encounter, which occurred at a close inferior conjunction of proto-Venus, was one in which the solid core first appeared through the Valles Marineris. This was the ‘eye of Horus’ in Egyptian lore. The amazing correspondence of the hieroglyph for the 'eye of Horus' and the Valles marineris (below) corroborates our scenario beyond any doubt. This was also the origin of the one-eyed Cyclops in Greek myth,who were said to be skilled iron workers, because of the iron meteorites that fell to Earth after these events. At the end of each 'dance encounter' the solid core actually exited the planet, dropped into a lower, faster orbit, moving eastward while the outer shell drifted away from the Earth to the west. The glowing solid core was the deity Hermes (Greek) and Mercury (Roman), thus the notion that it moved 'like the wind.' It made a partial orbit of the earth until it caught up with the outer shell and left Earth orbit riding 'piggy-back' on the latter. During the next fifteen years the solid core reentered the shell and the planet reformed while in a planetary orbit, outside of the tidal influence of the Earth and Venus. This entire cycle of capture and release occurred ninety-nine times due to the exact synchronization of the orbits of Earth, Venus and priori-Mars.

This 3,000 year resonant cycle terminated at the end of the hundredth encounter because the solid core of priori-Mars was deflected into the inner solar system by an encounter with the Moon and subsequent encounters with proto-Venus, shown in the fresco at the left. Today it is thought to be a complete planet, called Mercury. In order to honor the conservation of angular momentum and energy, the lithosphere of priori-Mars slid out to its present orbit, retaining only a portion of its liquid iron core and contracted over millennia to its present form. Today it is thought to be a complete planet, Mars. This is the reason for its low mass and density. More to the point, this is the reason why it does not have a solid core.

This brings up one closely associated point. I maintain that planetary magnetic fields originate from superconducting currents flowing in the solid cores of planets which are composed of the crystal FeH, a high pressure compound which was discovered when hydrogen accidentally entered the environment of a diamond anvil experiment on an iron sample. This crystal matches both the average density and speed of sound of the Earth's solid core more closely than any other. This hypothesis is consistent with seismic studies of the Earth’s core which show that the crystalline makeup of the inner portion of the solid core differs from that of the outer part. The aligned crystal structure is the superconductor that carries the current. The field is pumped up by the impulsive electrical currents generated massive waves of charged particles from the Sun (Faraday induction).

Proof lies in the fact that Mercury, the former core of priori-Mars, still has a dipole magnetic field. This has become weakened in the last 2,700 years because the great pressure needed to maintain the FeH superconductor, formerly exerted by the lithosphere of Mars is no longer present, and exists only in the deepest recesses of Mercury.

Ponderous whirls in the liquid outer core are caused by the differential rotation rates of the solid core and the lithosphere. These are currently imagined to act as a 'dynamo' to generate the geomagnetic field. But I maintain that they cannot be the source of the field since they carry no net electric charge. They only serve to distort the pure dipole field originating in the solid core. Mercury provides a serious test case for the dynamo hypothesis. If it is an ancient planet (4.5 billion years old) as currently believed, most of its iron core should have solidified because of its diminutive size, leaving much less liquid iron for the dynamo. But what makes the dynamo hypothesis untenable is Mercury's slow rotation, only once every 59 days. This is not fast enough to produce any significant whirls.

Venus, on the other hand, is a new planet, which was a ball of flaming plasma less than 6,000 years ago. As a result its entire interior is molten, covered only by a thin tenuous crust. Even though it is already fully differentiated, it is so hot that it will take a long time for any solid core to begin freezing out.

New Jupiter News

Scientists have come through with two new items concerning Jupiter this month. The first of these was reported in a Research Article in the journal Science entitled "Cassini Imaging of Jupiter’s Atmosphere, Satellites, and Rings", by Carolyn C. Porco et al. The analysis is based on images beamed to Earth from the Cassini spacecraft as it passed Jupiter in a ‘slingshot’ maneuver to send it toward Saturn. The opportunity was also used to test its instrumentation prior to arriving at Saturn, and indeed, some of the newly discovered features on Jupiter have already been adopted in the Saturn imaging plan. Although the NASA Galileo probe has returned thousands of images of the Jovian system, its failed wide band antenna has limited the total number of images it was able to collect. Cassini, all of whose systems are working, has transmitted about 26,000 images of Jupiter, more than enough to assemble time-lapse images of the cloud motions in different spectral regions. It is from the studies of these ‘motion pictures’ that the most interesting new data has been obtained.

Zonal Wind Intensities Decreased

The first of these revelations is that the zonal winds associated with the belts and zones have decreased since the Voyager 2 flyby, reported in 1986. The authors note that "The stability of Jupiter’s zonal winds, given the turbulent nature of its cloud patterns, is a remarkable feature of its atmosphere. Nonetheless, the zonal wind profile ... shows small changes in the shape and speed of some of the zonal jets ... " The eastward jet at 23 degrees North latitude has decreased from 180 to 140 m/sec and the westward jets at 30, 40 and 55 degrees North Latitude have decreased by10 to 20 m/sec. The authors offer no hypotheses concerning these changes.

Convection in the Belts

The second major finding is stated without any explanation of its scientific impact, as follows: "Observations from three near-IR ISS filters were used to detect convective clouds on Jupiter. Convective features appear in the dark bands in the Jovian atmosphere (called ‘belts’), where they are brighter than the surrounding cloud features; they are also brighter than any region in the adjacent bright bands (called ‘zones’) ... " This is a major revision of long held beliefs about Jupiter's dark belts and lighter zones. It had long been thought that the pale regions were areas of rising atmosphere while air in the dark bands was descending. But Cassini's images suggest that the opposite is true - air is rising in the belts and sinking in the zones.

Recognition of the Great Red Spot’s Stability

The pictures clearly show Jupiter's swirling cloud bands and the famous Great Red Spot (GRS). Although still thought to be a ‘giant storm’ in the current paradigm, the GRS is described as follows: "A deep stationary disturbance associated with the Great Red Spot must keep the atmosphere convectively unstable; this would explain how such features persist in the same location in the midst of a turbulent, rapidly changing local flow at the visible cloud top level." The term "such features" belies the fact that there is no other feature which has maintained its identity and position for anywhere near the 350 years, as has the GRS. The notion, often advanced, that it is a large storm whose longevity is attributable to its great size, is negated by the description (in the same article) of another feature of the same size that went through its entire life cycle during the six months of the Cassini pass. The article does not discuss the fact that the GRS corresponds to an atmospheric high, not a low which characterize storms on Earth.

The Missing Three Cloud Layers

The seventh paragraph is devoted to attempts to detect the molecules thought to comprise the three cloud layers, ammonia, ammonium hydrosulfide, and water, that are shown in every textbook which discusses Jupiter. ‘Models’ are discussed which predict these cloud layers, but what is essentially stated in obscure language in the article is that they were not observed. This corroborates the observations of the Galileo atmospheric probe, which actually sounded the upper atmosphere, and also did not find these layers.

The Ubiquitous Presence of Methane

Most of the colorations visible at the cloud tops are from aerosols or crystals, and as such do not exhibit line spectra which allow the use of narrow-band filters on the cameras. The most ubiquitous gaseous compound in the atmosphere of Jupiter is methane. The methane spectral bands were used to study the convection occurring at the cloud tops.

The Velikovsky/Angiras Explanation

Zonal Wind Intensities Decreased

The stability of the belts, zones and their associated winds is due to the fact that they are generated by the hot gases still issuing from a great crater on the surface of Jupiter formed by an enormously energetic impact 6,000 years ago. The rapid rotation of the planet (period ~ten hours) causes the rising gases to swirl (Coriolis effect) and to flow to the west as they rise through the atmosphere. The vortex spawns belts and zones to its north (moving westward) and south (moving eastward) respectively, which in turn spawn secondary zones and belts to their north and south, respectively. Thus the GRS is responsible for the entire banded system. These bands are reminiscent of the trade winds on the oceans of the Earth, and are only conceivable where bounded below by a solid planet http://www.cosis.net/abstracts/EAE03/00906/EAE03-J-00906.pdf. The colors of the vortices are the result of the crystallization of minerals from the entire spectrum of elements still being evaporated from the ancient crater in the solid snow/ice body of the planet. Jupiter’s observed temperature excess is due to the hot gases from the crater. The planet itself is cold. The small changes in the shape and speed of some of the zonal jets reported in the Porco paper is due to the gradual decline of the energy being effused from the 6,000 year-old crater.

Convection in the Belts

As stated in the article, the discovery of convection (rising air) in the dark ‘belts’ is exactly the opposite of what was previously believed. When the Galileo atmospheric probe failed to detect the three cloud layers, ammonia, ammonium hydrosulfide, and water, investigators claimed that it was because the probe "entered a non-typical atmospheric region - one in which the gas was descending " that is, an atmospheric belt. But the Cassini observations prove that the 'excuse' offered was incorrect and therefore the three cloud layers should have shown up, if the current models of Jupiter as a hot, gaseous planet were correct. Thus the Cassini observations confirm the absence of the three cloud layers in the Galileo atmospheric probe data. This fact alone begs for a re-evalution of the ‘gaseous Jupiter hypothesis’, which, in spite of all the textbook proclamations, is exactly that - a hypothesis, which must be subjected to proof.

Recognition of the Great Red Spot’s Stability

The statement that; "A deep stationary disturbance associated with the Great Red Spot must keep the atmosphere convectively unstable; this would explain how such features persist in the same location in the midst of a turbulent, rapidly changing local flow at the visible cloud top level" is true. But it is impossible for planetary scientists to believe that the ‘disturbance’ is a deep hot crater in the solid icy body of the planet. The current Jovian paradigm, that Jupiter and Saturn are gaseous and hot fails to explain almost every observable feature on the planet. The GRS is the manifestation of the gases issuing from the 6,000 year old crater as they reach the cloud tops. That is the reason for its longevity and its fixed latitude. Its coloration is due to the fact that all the known elements which were trapped - frozen in the snow/ice (clathrate) body of the planet 4.5 billion years ago, are being released from the crater forming minerals and crystallizing as they rise and cool through the atmosphere. This also explains why the GRS is a high pressure zone.

The Missing Three Cloud Layers

The Cassini data confirms the absence of the three cloud layers in another way. Its spectrographs failed to find any of the three compounds thought to comprise them. What the ‘models’ suggest is irrelevant. They would only be found if Jupiter were a hot gaseous planet. We maintain that that the ammonia, sulfur, and water are all frozen in the body of the giant planet. Some is continuously being evaporated from the ancient crater along with all the other elements, but the turbulent environment driven by the swirling gases prevents the adiabatic lapse rate required for their formation.

The Ubiquitous Presence of Methane

I suggest that the presence of so much methane, particularly on a planet which is thought to be 95% hydrogen and 5 % helium, is an important clue to the makeup of the body of Jupiter. Theoretical studies have been published that claim Jupiter could not be a solid planet, because the great pressure of the outer layers would crush the ‘normal’ material at the center to such great densities that Jupiter’s measured average density and moment of inertial factor could not be satisfied. Although glossed over in textbooks and course material, the theory that it was a hydrogen planet also failed to agree with the measured values. This was remedied by arbitrarily placing a ‘small’ rocky-iron body, some twenty times the mass of the Earth at the center. Why was this body not crushed to infinitely higher densities?? Later, the central body was justified because a massive core much larger than the Earth would have been necessary to gravitationally capture the hydrogen initially. Unfortunately, the ad hoc placement of the massive core violated the very assumption that led to the hydrogen theory.

As illustrated in the previous article, our knowledge of super high pressure chemical reactions is still in its infancy. But just as I suggested a possible new candidate for the composition of solid iron cores, that is FeH, I also suggest a new candidate for the composition of the solid body of Jupiter. One which exists at high pressures and has a lower density than ‘normal’ forms of water ice. I refer to compounds, or molecular structures, known as gas hydrates or clathrates. These comprise ‘cages’ of water molecules which enclose ‘foreign’ molecules. The most common foreign molecule is, guess what? - methane. On Earth clathrates exist at depths greater than most petroleum deposits and are considered by many to be our next natural energy source, because of the great volumes of the fuel methane, potentially recoverable from them. Their formation only under high pressures, their low density and high strength make gas hydrates attractive as candidates for the makeup of the solid body of Jupiter. I further suggest that a vast amount of methane trapped in the gas hydrates of Jupiter has been released from the giant impact crater in the last six millennia, and that is why it is so prevalent in the Jovian atmosphere.

The Jupiter ‘mooncount’ has Reached Fifty-Two

Reports of new satellites around Jupiter are coming in every day. I maintain that the great number, in both retrograde and prograde orbits, is a direct result of the great impact on Jupiter which occurred only 6,000 years ago. In fact there are many bodies ejected from Jupiter in the last six millennia than astronomers imagine. As discussed in the June 2003 newsletter, there are probably millions of them in inclined, eccentric Sun-grazing orbits, which are the source of sunspots. For a complete understanding of the Jovian system, I suggest readers study the paper entitled "A New Paradigm for the Jovian System," which is available on this website.

There is so much more in the seminal books Firmament and Chaos than is possible to present on the website and in the newsletters. The books contain hundreds of new, definite ideas, not ‘what if’s, ‘maybe’s and ‘perhaps’s. The myriad of new ideas will seem overwhelming to most intelligent people who have faith in the current uniformitarian paradigm. All current hypotheses are based on the unproven (unproveable) notion that because everything has been quiet for a few thousand years, it was always that way. But I have found a homomorphism between two disciplines, mythology and planetary/earth science, which heretofore were thought to be completely unrelated. This reveals the fact that recent planetary chaos reigned for 3,000 years and shaped every element of our current existence. Our ancient ancestors left us clear observations of compelling events for a reason. They wanted us to know the thrilling and dangerous encounters that they witnessed. Those encounters shaped the worlds we live in. The Earth and the planets - and everything we accept, e.g. the ‘man in the Moon’, the ‘witch on a broom’, ‘the pyramids’, the air we breathe, the GRS - all are direct results of that planetary chaos. More importantly, those events explain our existence on this Earth and delineate the pagan religions from the ‘true’ religion. It is a great shame that thousands of people are dying every day who have never been exposed to the profound events which shaped their beliefs and indeed their lives.

Long enough have you dream’d contemptible dreams,
Now I wash the gum from your eyes.
You must habit yourself to the dazzle of the light and of every moment of your life.

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