Chaos Excerpt

The following is an excerpt from Chaos, which explores the consequences of the Velikovsky/Ackerman catastrophic scenario for the recent history and makeup of Jupiter, Saturn. Venus, Mars, Moon, Near Earth and Main Belt Asteroids.

Formation of the Terrestrial Planets

The second major effect of the impact of an intra-galactic traveler on the surface of Jupiter was the birth of proto-Venus. It contracted gravitationally from the rebounded cloud of glowing plasma which had initially expanded in volume to a thousand times that of Jupiter itself. This plasma cloud contained the mix of elements that are present in the bulk of Jupiter, not solar abundances. Its primordial composition was rich in heavy elements, as exemplified by the spectra of the massive, long-lasting plumes dredged up from the surface of jupiter by the impacts of the larger Shoemaker Levy 9 comet fragments. The hydrogen present was that frozen in the ices of water, ammonia, methane, most of which are imbedded in gas hydrates (clathrates) as are most of the heavier elements. It was this plasma cloud that collapsed gravitationally to form proto-Venus. As a result of its rapid contraction proto-Venus became the most radiant body in the solar system - like a small star. It entered a highly elliptical orbit that brought it relatively close to the Sun. At each perihelion passage the tidal force of the Sun, acting on the entire seething ball of plasma, distorted its shape and repeatedly increased its temperature to over 10,000 Kelvins. The heating was greatly increased by the interaction of the solar magnetic field with the plasma that comprised proto-Venus, a process that most planetary scientists have never considered. These processes very efficiently converted its orbital kinetic energy to heat and as a result its eccentricity was rapidly decreased. Further orbital energy was lost to priori-Mars as a result of >innumerable= interactions between the two planets [stated in the Rig Veda]. The combination of interactions reduced the aphelion of proto-Venus to less than the earth=s orbital radius in less than one century and increased the orbital energy of priori-Mars. Thus the more massive proto-Venus ejected priori-Mars from its ancient interior orbit only 6,000 years ago.

The repeated heating performed another function that is absolutely necessary for the formation of a terrestrial planet. The high temperature caused the expulsion of the bulk of the lighter atoms from the proto-planet, by Jeans (thermal) escape. The out-gassed material formed two dark tails that extended hundreds of millions of kilometers into interplanetary space. This preferential loss of lighter elements increased the average density of proto-Venus from close to 1.0 g/cm3, the average density of the material blasted from Jupiter, to over 5.0 g/cm3, the typical density of a terrestrial planet. Thus the very factors which rapidly reduced its eccentricity also increased its density.

The creation of proto-Venus was an example, in proto-historical times, of how a terrestrial planet is formed , that is, how all terrestrial planets were formed. This is why the proto-terrestrial planets are depleted in volatile elements. Moreover, the differentiation of the heavy elements within the proto-planets took place at the time of their creation and at the same time the naturally radioactive elements floated to the surface by fractionation, due to the heat of their radioactive decay.

This process also explains how the terrestrial planets obtained large complements of water, the only source of which is currently thought to be comets from the outer reaches of the solar system. The volatile material which out-gassed in this process, i.e. the bulk of the material which rebounded from Jupiter, was not permanently lost. Much of it remained in interplanetary space and was subsequently swept up by the proto-planet as it cooled or by other extant terrestrial planets. We maintain that this sweeping up of volatiles lost in the hot proto-planet phase was the primary means of acquiring the volatiles in the aenospheres of the ancient terrestrial planets priori-Mars and Earth. Perhaps the controversial house-sized >snowballs,= thought by some to be falling to Earth on a daily basis, are made up of the water left in space from the creation of proto-Venus.

Consequently, we maintain that the terrestrial planets were not formed by accretion as all the current theories claim, but by the mechanism so recently and conveniently demonstrated in the 'birth' of proto-Venus, and observed by millions of people in ancient times. Given this one example, and having no others, we must conclude that this is the means of creation of all terrestrial planets.

If the mineral complement of all the great ice planets is similar, the initial makeup of the terrestrial planets, including the Moon, would be expected to be fairly similar, regardless of which great planet was their 'mother'. If subtle differences exist in the elemental makeup of the great planets, say, due to their different distances from the Sun, it may be possible for future space probes to determine which great planet was the >mother= of each terrestrial planet. The possibility also exists that each terrestrial planet incorporates a small amount of exotic elements or isotopes from the respective galactic traveler which was its 'father'.

Modification of Terrestrial Planets

The V/A scenario reveals a number of ways in which terrestrial planets can be modified after their white-hot birth. While still much too hot to allow water on its surface, the more massive Venus 'stole' considerable water, oxygen and carbon dioxide from the smaller priori-Mars, which now resides in its sulfuric acid clouds. This occurred during their many transient encounters.

The Earth has undergone two pairs of very traumatic modifications in recent millennia. The earliest of these occurred around the time of the Upper Dryas. This consisted of two overturnings of the lithosphere within a thousand years. Because of the profound climatic change revealed by the Greenland ice cores at that time, we believe these were associated with the capture of the Moon into its present orbit. Many fauna species became extinct at that time. The second set of modifications were a consequence of the recent impact on Jupiter. Proto-Venus passed close to the earth while still a flaming ball of liquid magma, scorching and overturning of the Earth twice, early in the fourth millennium B.C. These encounters profoundly modified the Earth’s surface and caused great tidal waves to sweep across entire continents, killing 99 percent of the animal life on our planet. As discussed in Firmament, we believe that those events wiped the slate of earth clean in preparation for the introduction of Homo Sapiens Sapiens.

The Earth then underwent a long, less traumatic, enhancement, at the expense of the smaller priori-Mars during the 'dance encounters.' The entire complement of volatiles - atmospheric gases and liquids present on priori-Mars, was transferred episodically but gradually to the Earth over a period of some 3,000 years. This increased the terrestrial oceans to their present levels and added oxygen and carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Planetary scientists have never even entertained the idea of two planets orbiting one another at close range and therefore have no idea of the effects that the more massive primary can have on the secondary during such encounters. The role of the Moon was also crucial to the transfer of volatiles from priori-Mars to the Earth during the dance encounters. Its orbit was modified repeatedly, changing its period from 36 to 28 days, and its surface was profoundly modified by great storms of regolith, and the impacts of streams of bodies from priori-Mars, producing its mass asymmetry and the maria which dominate the near side. Finally, proto-Venus played an important role in the capturing and releasing of priori-Mars during the dance encounters.

Not only did three planets enter into synchronous or resonant orbits, but two 'danced' for years at time, broke off the dances like feuding lovers only to return time and time again under the influence of the third. Over a period of some fifteen years, tidal forces of the ensemble resulted in the separation of the core of priori-Mars from its lithosphere a hundred times, to be subsequently reunited and finally flung forever into different parts of the solar system. Priori-Mars and Mercury are the separate parts of a destroyed planet, and as such are not really complete planets. A great mass of material ejected episodically from priori-Mars subsequently fell onto the surfaces of the Moon and Mercury in the last 2,700 years, causing the two bodies to superficially resemble one another, but Mercury's very high density, dipole magnetic field and recent signs of shrinkage offer give evidence of its true nature.

Contact: email to

  © John Ackerman